What Is SMITH Algorithm?

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After updating BERT and PASSAGE INDEXING, Google talks about something new called “SMITH”. We are all familiar with the BERT update. BERT tries to understand the meaning of a sentence by checking the words used. Yes, it helps bots understand what the content is actually saying.

 But, it doesn't really guarantee 100% human quality control, does it?

I've been waiting until I have some time to write a summary because SMITH seems to be an important algorithm and deserved thoughtful writing, which I humbly tried.

So here it is, I hope you enjoy it and if you do, then share this article.


Google’s SMITH Algorithm Outperforms BERT

Google's new SMITH algorithm understands long-form content better than BERT.

Recently, Google comes out with an analysis paper on a brand new algorithm which is known as SMITH that states it outperforms BERT in understanding lengthy documents and queries. In particular, what makes this new model superior is that it is able to perceive passages within the paperwork in an identical way. BERT understands phrases and sentences, which allows the algorithm to understand longer documents.


Does Google use the SMITH algorithm?

Google does not usually say what specific algorithms it uses. After all, researchers say that this algorithm outperforms BERT, until Google formally declares that the SMITH algorithm is used to know the passages within web pages, it is purely hypothetical to say whether or not it is in use.



What is SMITH Algorithm?


SMITH which is known as Siamese Multi-Depth Transformer Based Hierarchal Encoder. It’s a brand new model that trying to understand the entire paperwork. Fashions that resemble BERT are trained to know phrases within the context of sentences.

It’s an interpreted description, the SMITH module is competent to understand the passages within the context of the entire document.

Although, an algorithm like BERT is trained in knowledge units to predict randomly hidden phrases that come from the context within sentences, the SMITH algorithm is trained to predict what the next block of sentences is.

This type of training helps the algorithm understand larger documents better than the BERT algorithm, according to the researchers.



BERT Algorithm has Limitations

Here's how they present BERT's shortcomings:

“In recent years, self-care-based models like Transformers ... and BERT ... have achieved state-of-the-art performance in the task of text matching. These models, however, are still limited to short texts such as a few sentences or a paragraph due to the quadratic computational complexity of self-attention with respect to the length of the input text”.


“In this paper, we address the problem by proposing the Siamese Multi-Depth Transformer-based Hierarchical Encoder (SMITH) for the comparison of long-format documents. Our model contains several innovations to adapt the self-service models for longer text input”.


According to the researchers, the BERT algorithm is limited to understanding brief paperwork. For many of the causes defined in the discussion paper, BERT does not adequately fit the understanding of long-form paperwork.

The researchers introduce their new algorithm in which they are saying outperforms BERT with larger documents.


Why Longer Documents are Difficult?

Due to some reasons, semantic matching between long texts is a more challenging task. And the reasons are:

1)   When both texts are long, matching them requires a deeper understanding of semantic relationships, including the pattern of matching between long-distance text fragments;

2)   Extensive paperwork includes internal construction such as sections, passages, and sentences. For human readers, document construction often plays a key role in understanding content. Similarly, a model must also take into account the document construction data for greater document comparison efficiency;

3)   Long word processing is more likely to trigger practical problems such as TPU / GPU memory output without careful model design. "


Larger Input Text

BERT is limited to the length of the documents. SMITH, as you'll see below, works better the longer the document is.

This truth of SMITH with the ability to do something that BERT cannot do is what makes SMITH's model riveting.

The SMITH model doesn’t swap BERT.

The SMITH model complements BERT by doing the heavy lifting that BERT cannot. 

The researchers tested it and said:

Our experimental results on various reference data sets for comparison of long-form documents show that our proposed SMITH model outperforms previous next-generation models, including hierarchical care…, Hierarchical recurrent neural network based on multi-depth attention… and BERT

Compared to BERT-based baselines, our model is able to increase the maximum input text length from 512 to 2048 ".


Long to Long Matching

If I understand the analysis document precisely, the analysis document indicates that the issue of matching long queries with long content have not been appropriately explored.


According to the researchers:

As far as we know, semantic matching between pairs of long documents, which has many important applications such as news recommendation, related article recommendation, and document grouping is less explored and needs more research effort.

Later in the document, they state that there has been some research that comes close to what they are investigating.

But overall there seems to be a gap in finding ways to match long queries to long documents. That is the problem the researchers are solving with the SMITH algorithm.


Google SMITH details

I will not delve into the details of the algorithm, but I will select some general characteristics that communicate a high-level view of what it is.

The document explains that they use a pre-training model similar to BERT and many other algorithms.

First, a little general information to make the document more meaningful.



Algorithm Pre-training

Pre-training is the place where an algorithm is trained on a set of information. For typical pre-training of such algorithms, engineers will mask (hide) random phrases within sentences. The algorithm tries to predict masked phrases.


For example, if a sentence is written as "Old McDonald had a ____", the algorithm when fully trained can predict, "farm" is the missing sentence.

Because the algorithm learns, it will definitely be optimized to make far fewer errors in training knowledge.

Pre-training is done with the goal of training the machine to be correct and to make far fewer mistakes.


This is what the document says:

Inspired by the recent success of language model pre-training methods like BERT, SMITH also embraces the "individually pre-training + fine-tuning" paradigm for model training.

When input text becomes long, both the relationships between words in a sentence block and the relationships between sentence blocks within a document become important for understanding the content.

Therefore, we masked both randomly selected words and sentence blocks during the pre-training of the model.

The researchers then describe in an additional item how this algorithm outperforms and outperforms the BERT algorithm.

What they are doing is intensifying training to go beyond phrase training to tackle sentence blocks.


This is how it is described in the research paper:

"In addition to the masked word prediction task in BERT, we propose the masked sentence block prediction task to learn the relationships between different sentence blocks."

The SMITH algorithm is trained to predict sentence blocks. My private feeling about it is ... that's pretty good.

This algorithm studies the relationships between sentences and then levels out enough to teach the context of sentence blocks and how they are related to each other in a lengthy document.


Results of SMITH Testing

Researchers are famous because SMITH does better with longer text content documents.

Enjoying longer input text lengths compared to other standard personal care models, the SMITH model is a better choice for learning and comparing

In the long term, the researchers concluded that the SMITH algorithm outperforms BERT for lengthy procedures. This means it does better than BERT for lengthy documents.


Why SMITH Research Paper is Important?

One of the reasons I prefer to read research papers on patents is that research papers share details about whether the proposed model performs better than existing and next-generation models

Many research papers concluded by saying that more work needs to be done. To me, that means the algorithm experiment is promising, but it is probably not ready to be implemented in a live atmosphere.

A smaller percentage of research papers say that the results exceed the state of the art. These are the research papers that, in my opinion, are worth paying attention to because they are more likely to fall into Google's algorithm.

When I say more likely, I do not mean that the algorithm is or will be in Google's algorithm.

What I mean is that, relative to other algorithm experiments, research papers that claim to go above the state of the art are more likely to be integrated into Google's algorithm.



SMITH outperforms BERT in long-form documents

According to the conclusions reached in the analysis paper, the SMITH model outperforms many fads, along with BERT, in understanding length and content.

Experimental results on various reference data sets show that our proposed SMITH model outperforms next-generation Siamese matching fashions alongside HANSMASH, and BERT for long-form document matching.


Is SMITH in use?

As previously written, until Google explicitly states that they are using SMITH, there is no option to say precisely that the SMITH model is in use at Google.

That said, the research articles that are likely not in use are those that exceptionally state that the findings are the first step toward a new kind of algorithm and that more research is needed.

This is not the case in this review article. The authors of the review article confidently state that SMITH outperforms the state-of-the-art in understanding extensive content.

That confidence in the results and the insufficiency of an ad that further analysis is needed to make this document more eye-catching than others, and because of this fact, it makes good sense to find out should be incorporated into Google's algorithm one day, sooner or later, or within the stream. 



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